美国大学五大新兴科系倾向提供企业可用人才

 

美国许多教育及各方面的专家预测,为因应学生的需求以及为企业提供可用的人才,未来大学将有五大结合不同专业领域而产生的新兴科系。这五大跨领域的科系为:消费服务科学系,健康医疗资讯系,应用电脑科学系,绿化生活品质系,公共卫生系。

消费服务科学系

虽然消费服务相关产业占了80%的经济活动,但是一般来说过去在大学里却没有开设相关的科系。不过现在情况已经改变了。现今在美国大约有250所大学开始开办相关课程,并请各大学,公司,以及研究机构共同商研课程的大纲内容。这类的课程通常是开设於研究所,不过也有大学部设立此类科系,例如威斯康辛大学史道特(Wisconsin-Stout)分校以及密西根科技大学。威斯康辛大学史道特分校的服务管理课程以商业为主,学生毕业後的就业取向为各行业的管理部门。密西根科技大学的课程则以产业工程为主,强调产业服务而非产品制造。学者表示未来此类科系应紧密地将服务科学与商业及工程结合以培养能涉猎各领域知识并能深入解决问题的人才。

健康医疗资讯系

医药管理科系本已存在於大学教育中,但随着市场的需求,美国现今已有270个科系开设将医药记录管理与电脑数位结合的课程。此新课程带领许多大学开始修改他们的课程大纲,以培养学生们不但有电脑资讯技能,更对医院管理及公共医疗有深度的了解。拥有这双项能力才能有效正确分析数位医疗资料。

应用电脑科学系

大部分的人常混淆了应用电脑科学系与电脑系。传统的电脑系是培养学生对於电脑的知识, 而应用电脑科学系则是教导学生如何以电脑为工具来完成事情。电脑的应用涉及各行各业,例如预测天气,基因分析,测量尿布吸收度,甚至洋芋片的弯度等等。电脑可以说是解决问题的好帮手。应用电脑科学系的课程一般来说包含了高等数学,电脑科学,模型模拟,以及特定的专业课程,例如化学或工程。

绿化生活品质系

为了跟上保护地球的脚步,美国各大学都开始"绿化"他们的课程,开设和"绿化生活品质"相关的科系。此类科系能广泛地和一些传统科系结合,例如,经济系,商学系,建筑系,生态环境系,营养系等等。政府单位例如美国太空总署也投入了6.4亿美元发展这个新兴科系,提供让对地球天气变化有兴趣的大学相关资源。这个新兴的科系将能帮助毕业生在现今的世界绿化潮流中走出自己的一片天。

公共卫生系

美国政府最近的医疗保险改革计划让许多大学及学生重新注意起公共卫生系的课程,有些大学开始新增此科系,至少有100所大学则因应潮流扩增原有的学程或增设辅系。大学部的课程能提供给学生基础科学知识,这样的知识可以让学生在将来顺利进入大部分的医疗健康相关领域。然而仅有大学部而无研究所的公共卫生课程将面临没有足够的教学资源来支持一个系的形成。但一个有系也有所的公共卫生课程也有其问题,那就是如何将系与所的必修选修课程清楚界分。


英文全文如下:
For the most part, tomorrow's bachelor's-level majors will look very much like those offered by colleges today. But in interviews with The Chronicle, academic experts, business analysts, and economic forecasters helped identify five emerging areas of study.
Some new majors arise in response to student demand, while other degree programs are meant to provide an industry with workers. Many cross disciplinary boundaries, such as combining environmental science with agriculture or bringing together chemists and computer scientists.
"Most of the interesting work today is done at the interstices of disciplines," says Robert B. Reich, a former U.S. labor secretary and a professor of public policy at the University of California at Berkeley.
Here is a look at five up-and-coming majors you are likely to see at more colleges in the coming years.
Service science
On the average day, the typical American uses services 40 times, from turning on the faucet in the morning to turning out the lights at night. "The new service economy is not just people flipping burgers," says Roland T. Rust, executive director of the Center for Excellence in Service and a professor of marketing at the University of Maryland at College Park.
Although the service sector makes up fully 80 percent of the economy, there has been little effort to study service as a science or to prepare workers who can improve productivity and increase innovation in the sector.
That's changing. Now 250 colleges and universities in 50 countries offer degrees or courses in a nascent field known as service science, management, and engineering. A coalition of companies, universities, and research institutions is developing content standards for such programs, says James C. Spohrer, director of global university programs at IBM, one of the lead partners.
So far, most of the offerings are at the graduate level. But a pair of undergraduate programs at U.S. institutions highlight two approaches to the study of service.
The University of Wisconsin-Stout's bachelor's of science in service management takes a business-centric tack. Students take courses in service operations, service marketing, and electronic services, says Joseph W. Holland, the program director, and typically go on to management-track jobs in fields such as finance, hospitality, and information technology.
Service-systems engineering at Michigan Technological University is more akin to industrial engineering, says Dana Johnson, an associate professor of operations management who teaches in the program, which focuses on service instead of on the production and manufacture of goods.
Graduates, the first of whom will earn their degrees next spring, could find ways to streamline emergency-room operations at hospitals, shorten lines at bank-teller windows or tollbooths, or improve the delivery of products worldwide. One of the biggest potential service-engineering challenges, says Amlan Mukherjee, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering, could come with the passage of health-care-reform legislation.

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